According to Article 79, There shall be a parliament for the Union which contains the President and the two houses known as Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Though the President is not a member of either house of the Parliament, even then he is an integral part of the Parliament.
Function of Parliament
The most important function of the Parlament is to make laws. The second most important function of the parliment to controll the Executive.
Houses of the Parliament
Their are two houses in the parliament.
- The Lok Sabha or The Councles of States
- The Rajya Sabha or The Lower House
The Rajya Sabha
The Rajya sabha consists of 250 members who are divided into two catagories: - elected and noinated. Out of 250 members 238 are elected and 12 are nominated. Then members of Rajya sabha are indirectly elected by the members of the State Legislatures. Rajya Sabha never dissolves, elections to Rajya Sabha held in such away that 1/3 of member retires one in 2 years. A person is elected for the term of 6 years.
- Chairman: The Vice -President of India is the ex-offico chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
- Deputy Chairman: Deputy Chairman is elected by teh Rajya Sabha form its members. In the absence of the Chairman, Deputy Chairman takes over the functions of the House
Function of Rajya Sabha
The Constitutional Amendment Bill must be bassed by the Raya Sabha separately. There is no provision of joint-sitting to pass such bills. In ordinary Bills Rajya Sabha have same powers as of Lok Sabha but in case of money Bill, Lok Sabha have more powe rthan Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha can keep tehm only a maximum of 14 days.
In cases of decelaration of emergencies under Article 352 it mussed be passed within 1 months from Rajya sabha and Article 356 it shoud be passed within 2 months from Rajya sabha.
The Lok Sabha
In constitution, the strength of the Lok Sabha can not be more then 552 from the states, 20 from the Union Territories and two nominated from the Anglo-Indian Community. But the Constitution empowers the Lok Sabha to readjust the Strength. The Parliament has fixed the strength of the Lok Sabha as 545 till 2026. Any Bill is a Money bill or not, this decision was taken by the Speker of the Lok Sabha.
No-Confidence Motion Bill can be brought only in Lok Sabha because union council of ministers is responsilbe for Lok Sabha. Lok Sabha can be extended fro 1 year. It has be done once.
Sesions of the Parliament
The Constitution says that there should not be a gap of more than six months between two consecutive sittings of the parliament. There are three types of session:
- Budget Session: This is the most important and the longest session. This session sits between February to May
- Monsoon Session: This session sits between July to August.
- Winter Session: This is the shortest session. This session sits between the November to December
Joint Session can be ordered by the president in case a bill is passed by one house and rejected by the other or in case if a bill remains pending unpassed for more then 6 months
The Speaker of Lok Sabha chairs the Joint session. In joint session no fresh constitutional amendment can be done.
Prorogation of House
It means ending the session. Pending bills does not lapse the are taken in the next session.
Dissolution of House
Only Lok Sabha can be dissolved by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Bill pending in Rajya Sabham passed by Lok Sabha also lapse. Bills pending in Rajya Sabha not passed by Lok Sabha don't lapse.
The first hour of every sitting in both houses(11-12 AM). In this time question are asked by members and answered by ministers. Generally there are three type of question asked.
- Starred Questions: The oral answer is given for this type of questions. 1 member can ask ony one question in a day.
- Unstarred Question: Question for which written answer is enquired(10 days notice).
- Short Notice Questions: These questins relates to matters of urgent public importance and can be asked by members with motice shorter than the ten days prescribed for an ordinary question
From 12-1 PM daily. The time immediately following the Question Hour has come to be known as "Zero Hour". It starts at around 12 noon (hence the name) and members can, with prior notice to the Speaker, raise issues of importance during this time.
It is a proposal brought before house for its opinion/decision. Types of Motion:
- Priviledge Motion: It is introduced by the oppostion that a minister has misled the house by giving wrong information
- Censure Motion: It can only be moved in Lok Sabha only by the opposition. It can be moved against the Government or against a perticluar minister, 1/10 members of the House required for moving it. If acensure motion is passed in Lok Sabha the Government is bound to prove confidence of Lok Sabha as early as possible.
- No Confidence Motion: It can be moved in Lok Sabha only by the opposition. It can be brought only against the council of ministers and not angainst any individual minister. If this motion is adopted by the House, the Council of Ministers is bound to resign.
- Call - Attention Motion: A member(after permission from Speaker) calls the attention of the minister to any matter of urgent public importance.
- Aduournment Motion: Leads to setting aside the naormal buisness of the house for discussing a perticular matter of urgent public importance
- Cut Motion: They are moved in the Lok Sabha only. They are part of the budgetary process which seeks to reducte the amounts for grants.