Silent Features of Our Constitution
The Constitution of India has some distinct and unique features as compared to other constitutions of the world. As Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the Chairman of the Drafting Committee tried to make it best for the farmers and taken the best features of other constitutions. Some of the silent features are discussed below.
Lengthiest Written Constitution
Their are two type of constitutions, first is written constitution like American and Indian constitution and the second one is unwritten like the British Contitution. The constitution of India is the longest of all the written constitutions of the world. Everything is written in detail and elobrated properly.
Taken Form Various Other Sources
The Constitution of India has borrowed most of its part from the constitutions of many other countries.
- Parliamentary form of Government - Taken from the UK's constitution
- Rule of law - Taken from the UK's constitution
- Fundamental Rights - Taken from the U.S.A
- Republic - Taken from French constitution
- Fundamental Duties - From USSR (Now Russia)
- Directive principles of state policy - From Ireland
- Method of election of president - From Ireland
- Concurrent List - Australia
- Process to amend the Constitution - South Africa
- Single Citizenship - Britain (U.K)
- Fedration with strong entre - Canada
Mixture of Rigidity and Flexiblity
Constitutions are also classified into rigid and flexible constitutions.
- Rigid Constitution: In rigid constitution a special procedure is required for its amendment, for e.g: American Constitution
- Flexible Constitution: A flexible constitution can be amended in the same manner as the ordinary laws are made, for e.g: British Constitution
Indian Constitution is a mixture of both rigid constitution and flexible Constitution. Some provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament, i.e., a two-third majority of the members of each House present and voting, and a majority (that is, more than 50 per cent), of the total membership of each House and some other provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament
Federal System With Unitary Bias
The Constitution of India have a federal system of government. It contains all the usual features of fedration like two governments, division of powers, written Constitution, independent judiciary and bicameralism,
It also contains a large number of unitary or non-federal features like a stron gCentre, single Constitutionm single citizenship, integrated judiciary, all-India services, emergency powers etc.
Parliamentary Form of Government
The constitution of India have a parliamentary system like British parliamentry System. It consists of two houses i.e. Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
The Indian constitution esteblishes an indipendent judiciary. The Supreme Court stand at the top of the Judicial System in the country. Below it, there are High Courts at the state level and below them district courts and other lower courts.
Even we have two type of governments (centre and state governments) the constitution provides only a single citizenship that is the indian citizenship. USA on the other hand provides dual citizenship, one of USA and other of the State to wich a person belongs.
There are several indipendent bodies which are out of government controll.
- Election Commission: Election Commission ensure free and fair elections
- Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG): He checks the accounts of the Centeral and State government. He acts as the guardian of public money
- Union Public Service Commission (UPSC): Its duty to conduct examination for recruitment to all India Services and higher Central Services.
- State Public Service Commission : It conducts the recruitment of State Services officers.
Indian constitution contains detaied emergency provisions to enable the President to handle any extra-ordinary situation effectively. The main purpose of these power is to safeguard the Unity, Integrity, Security and Soveregnty of the country. The constitution provides three type of emergencies.
- National Emergency
- State Emergency
- Financial Emergency