Constitutional (Historical) Background
The first phase of Indian constitution development starts from 1773 to 1858 after the battle of Plassy (1757) and Battle of Bakshar (1764). The British Paliament had a conference with East India Company(E.I.C) which resulted with the following Acts:
- Regulating Act 1773
- Pitt's India Act 1784
- Charter Act of 1793
- Charter Act of 1813
- Charter Act of 1833
- Indian concil Act 1909
- Government of India Act 1935
Regulating Act 1773
In this act the governor of Bengal was change to the Governor General of Bengal. Warren Hesting was the first Governor General of Bengal. Dual governance of Administation was ended in this Act. Supreme Court established in India at Calcutta near fort william in 1774 with one chief justice and 3 other members.
Pitt's India Act 1784
This act was passed on the name of that time british prime minister William pitts. The act was aimed to remove the drawback which were there in the regulating Act. Bord of control esteblished to look the affairs of court of director. For first time the commercial and political activities of the company were seprated.
Charter Act of 1793
This charter act provided 20 year tenure(lease) to company for their covernance. The salary of British employs who are working in India shall be paid from Indian revenue by East India Company (E.I.C) and all laws were to be translated in Indian Languages.
Charter Act of 1813
The trade monopoly of East India Company (E.I.C) was ended with India but they retain the monopoly in tea and trade with china. Now all englishmen can trade with India. In India Missionaries(Dharm Parivartan) starts from this act only. Christian missionaries were permitted to come to India and spread their religion. Again a 20 year lease provided to E.I.C.
Charter Act of 1833
The designation of governor general of bengal was change to governor general Of India. William Bentic was the Ist governor general of India. Monopoly of EIC ended now anybody can trade with india even in ta and trade with china.
Indian concil Act 1953
The British parliament ended the charter Act, it means that the British Parliament can pass any Act at any time. The recruitment of civil services was nases on an open annual competiton exam(excluding Indians). The first Civil Service exam was conduced at lucknow in 1921-22.
Indian concil Act 1909
Also known as Morley - Minto reforms. Morley was the secretary of state and Minto was the Indian Viceroy. First time in India resevation is started for muslims on the name oof seprate electrate. Thats why Lord Minto is known as the father of communal representation of India.
Government of Inda Act 1935
First time in India the word federation was introduced. It means the existance of two government i.e Centre and State government. The subject was divided into three units:
Provincal autonomy was provided with respect to dyarchy and dyarchy was introduced in the centre which means the union subject is divided into two parts i.e tansfer and Reserved.
Womens were allowed to cast vote and even they can contest election