Production of goods from the raw materials is known as manufacturing. Industries are classified into two types:
- Agro based
- Minerals based
Agro based industries
The indiustries which are linked with agriculture product are known as agro based industries.
- Cotton textiles: There are nearly 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country. Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu have many cotton textiles. India exports cotton to Japan, U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries. India has the second largest installed capacity of spindles in the world, next to China, at around 34 million.
- Jute textiles: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. There are about 70 jute mills in India. Most of these are located in West Bengal. jute industry supports 2.61 lakh workers directly and another 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers who are engaged in cultivation of jute. The main markets are U.S.A., Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, UK. and Australia.
- Sugar industry: India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari. The raw material used in this industry is bulky. There are over 460 sugar mills in the country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat along with Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. Sixty per cent mills are in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Minerals based industry
The indiustries which uses mineral products as raw material are known as mineral based industries, iron steel industry, eg. aluminum smelting, chemical industry etc
- Iron and steel industry: Today with 32.8 million tons of steel production, India ranks ninth among the world crude steel producers. It is the largest producer of sponge iron. China is the largest producer. China is also the world’s largest consumer of steel. Chotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries. It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry. These include, low cost of iron ore, high, grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market. Though, India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to: (a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal (b) Lower productivity of labour, (c) Irregular and (d) POOT supply of energy infrastructure
- Aluminum Smelting: it is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It resist the corrosion, is good conductor of heat, malleable and become strong when it is mixed with other metals. There are 8 aluminum smelting plants in the country located in Orissa (Nalco and Balco), West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattishgarh.
- Chemical Industry: It is the third largest in Asia and occupies the 12th place in the world in term of its size. It contributes approximately 3% of GDP.
- Fertilizer Industry: Fertilizer industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K). India is the 3rd largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizer. Half Production of fertilizers are from Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala and others are Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
- Cement Industry: First plant was set up in Chennai in 1904. At present there are 128 large plant and 332 small plants in out country.
- Automobile Industry: There are 15 manufactures of passenger cad and vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of two and three wheelers. These industries are located around Delhi, Gurgoan, Mumbai, pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bangalore. IT and electronic industry: Bangalore has named as the electronic capital of India. Other important centers are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow.