Chapters

Indian Vegetation

India is a land of large variety of natural vegetation. Himalayan heights are marked with mountane vegetation, the Western Ghats and the Andaman Nicobar islands have tropical rain forests, the delta regions have tropical forests and mangroves, the desert area are known for a wide variety of bushes and thorny vegetation. Types of forests:

  1. Tropical Evergreen forest
  2. Tropical Deciduous forest
  3. Tropical Thorn forest
  4. Mountane forests
  5. Littoral and Swamp forests

 

Tropical evergreen forest

They are found in Western ghats, hills of Northeastern region and the Andaman and Nicobar Island. They are found in warm and humid areas with an annual rainfall of over 200 cm and mean annual temperature above 22°C. These forests appear green throughout the year.

Tropical Deciduous forests

These type of forests are found in large area in India. They grow in the region where rainfall is between 79-200cm. They are also known as monsoon forest. On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous.

  1. Moist Deciduous forest: The moist deciduous forests are grown where the rainfall is not n between 100-200 cm. These forests are found in the northeastern states along the foothills of Himalayas, eastern slopes of the Western ghats and orissa. Teak, sal, shisham, hurra, mahua, amla, semul, kusum and sandalwood etc. are the main species of these forests.
  2. Dry Deciduous forest: The dry deciduous forests covers large area of country, where rainfall ranges between 70-100cm. These forests are found in rainier areas of the Peninsula and the plains of Utter Pradesh and Bihar. As the dry season start, the trees shed their leaves completely. Tendu, Palas, Amaktas, Bel, Axlewood etc are the common trees of these forests.

 

Tropical thorn Forest

Tropical thorn forests occur in the areas which receive rainfall less than 50 cm. These consist of a variety of shrubs. They are found in south west Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Plants remain leafless for most part of the year. Important plants found in this Forest are babool, bar, and wild date palm, khair, neem, khejri, palas, etc

Mountane forest

The decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to change iin natural vegetation in mountain areas. The Himalayan ranges have Vegetation from Tropical to the tundra, with change of altitude. Deciduous forests are found in the foothills of the Himalayas.

Littoral and Swamp forests

India has a rich variety of wetland habitats. About 70 per cent of this comprises areas under paddy cultivation. The total area of wet land is 3.9 million hectares. In India, the mangrove forests spread over 6,740 sq. km which is 7 per cent of the world's mangrove forests. They are highly developed in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Sunderbans of West Bengal. Other areas are the Mahanadi, the Godavari and the Krishna deltas. The country's wetlands have been grouped into eight categories, which are the Deccan Plateau in the south together with the lagoons and other wetlands of the southern west coast, the vast saline expanses of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the Gulf of Kachchh, freshwater lakes and reservoirs from Gujarat eastwards through Rajasthan (Keoladeo National Park) and Madhya Pradesh, the delta wetlands and lagoons of India’s east coast (Chilika Lake), the freshwater marshes of the Gangetic Plain, the floodplains of the Brahmaputra, the marshes and swamps in the hills of northeast India and the Himalayan foothills, the lakes and river: of the montane region of Kashmir and Ladakh, and the mangrove forest and other wetland, of the island arcs of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Forest in India

According to the National Forest Policy, the minimum desired area which is considered safe for a tropical country like India is about 33%. At present, about 20.64% India is covered with forests. Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under forests followed by Arunachal, Chhattisgarh, Orissa. As per percentage of forest area to total area, first is Andaman and Nicobar Islands, followed by Mizoram, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachala Pradesh, Tripura and Nagaland. The lowest forest percentage is in Haryana and Punjab, because of the extensive agriculture.


Latest Current Affaris

Current affairs 05/06/2019
Current affairs 05/06/2019

1). Comptroller and auditor general Rajiv Mehrishi has been appointed as the external auditors of World Health Organisation (WHO) for a four year term from 2020-23. 2).World Environment Day is observed on 5 June(Theme: The Air Pollution). 3). Madhya Pradesh cabinet has passed a resolution to increase reservation of OBC's 27%.

करंट अफेयर्स 03-04/06/2019
करंट अफेयर्स 03-04/06/2019

1. नयब बुकेले को ईआई सल्वाडोर के राष्ट्रपति के रूप में चुना गया है। (ईआई सल्वाडोर की राजधानी: सैन सल्वाडोर, मुद्रा: संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका डॉलर) 2. राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा सलाहकार (NSA) अजीत डोभाल की दोबारा अपने पद पर नियुक्ति हुई। NDA सरकार के दूसरे कार्यकाल में उन्हें कैबिनेट रैंक दिया गया है। 3. 3 जून को विश्व साइकिल दिवस मनाया जाता है।

Current affairs 03-04/06/2019
Current affairs 03-04/06/2019

1. Nyaib Bukele has been Sworn in as the president of  EI Salvador ( EI Salvador's capital: San Salvador, currency: United States Dollar). 2. National Security Advisor (NSA) Ajit Doval reappointed to his post and given Cabinet rank in the second term of the NDA government. 3. World Bicycle Day is observed on 3rd June .

Current Affairs Quiz

डेली जीके क्विज 17/05/2019
डेली जीके क्विज 17/05/2019

1. भारतीय नौसेना प्रमुख का नाम बताएं? 2. हाल ही में ICC द्वारा पहली महिला मैच रेफरी के रूप में किसे नियुक्त किया गया है? 3. हाल ही में एक हल्के खेल विमान (एलएसए) में अटलांटिक महासागर को पार करने वाली दुनिया की पहली महिला कौन बनी है?

Daily Gk Quiz 17/05/2019
Daily Gk Quiz 17/05/2019

1. Name the Indian Navy Chief? 2. Recently who has been appointed as first female match referee by ICC? 3. Recently who has becomes the world’s first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean solo in a light sports aircraft (LSA)?

डेली जीके क्विज 29/09/2018
डेली जीके क्विज 29/09/2018

प्रश्न 1)। हाल ही में एशियाई विकास बैंक (एडीबी) ने राज्य में रोजगार को बढ़ावा देने के लिए मध्य प्रदेश में पहला बहु-कौशल पार्क स्थापित करने के लिए 150 मिलियन डॉलर के ऋण को मंजूरी दे दी है। एडीबी के अध्यक्ष कौन हैं? प्रश्न 2)। परकर्म परव किस अवसर पर मनाया जा रहा है? प्रश्न 3)। भारत की लाइव स्टॉक जनगणना 1 अक्टूबर से शुरू होने वाली है। इस तरह की कितनी जनगणना पहले आयोजित की गई है और यह कौन सी जनगणना है?