India lies between between latitude 8°4' N to 37°6' N and from longitude 68°7’ E to 97°25' E. Tropic of Cancer divides India into almost two equal parts passing from jabalpur in M.P. Indra point is the southern most point of India at 6°45’ . India lies wholly in the northern and Eastern hemisphere. 80°30’ Longitude is taken as standard time meridian of India and passes through the middle of India (near Allahabad).
Area and Boundaries
Length of India from North to South is 3214 km and from east to west is 2933 km. Total area of India is 32,87,263 sq. Km. It is 2.4% of total world area. India has coastline of 6,100 km. Lakashadweep and andaman Nicobar have 1416.6km of coastline therefore total coastline of India is 7516.6 km. Total land neighbours of India are Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. India have two island first is Andaman and Nicobar in bay of Bengal and Lakashadweep in Arabian Sea.
Facts about India
Uttar Pradesh have maximum number of 8 (Eight) States boundaries: Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar.
Tropic of Cancer passes through, 8 (Eight) States: Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram.
Structure of India
Indian structure consist of three major parts:
- The peninsular block
- The Himalayas and other peninsular Mountains
- Indo Ganga Brahmaputra plain
The peninsular block
This plateau is shaped like triangle with its base in the north. It spreads in south of the Indo-Gangetic plains having sea on three sides. It consist of the Aravali hills, the Nellamalai hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the Palkonda range and the Mahendragiri hills, etc. Most of the flowing rivers form deltas before entering Into the Bay of Bengal.
Himalayas and other peninsular mountains
The Himalayas along with other Peninsular mountains are young, weak and flexible in their geological structure unlike the rigid and stable Peninsular Block.
Indo Ganga Brahmaputra plain
Third geological division of India is the plains formed by the river Indus, the Ganga and Brahmaputra.
Based on the variations, India can be divided into the following physiographic divisions:
- The Northern and Northeastern Mountains
- The Northern plain
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Indian desert
- The Coastal plains
- The Island
The Northern and Northeastern Mountains
The North and Northeastern Mountains consist of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills. Between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range, lies the world famous valley of Kashmir and the famous Dal Lake. Important glaciers of South Asia such as the Baltoro and Siachen are also found in this region. It consist of Kashmir, ladakh etc. All the three ranges of Himalayas are come in this section also. These are the Great Himalayan range, the Lesser Himalayas (which is locally known as Dhaoladhar in Himachal Pradesh and Nagtibha in Uttaranchal) and the Shiwarik range from the North to the South.
The Northern Plains
These are formed by alluvial soil deposit by the rivers- the Indus , The Ganga and Brahmaputra. These are 3200 km from east to west. These are divided into three major zone from North to South: Bhabar, Tarai, and alluvial plains.
The peninsular plateau
This plateau is like triangle in shape with its base in the North. This spreads of the Indo-Gangetic plains covered by sea on three side. The peninsular plateau is divided into three main groups:
- The Deccan Plateau
- The Central Highlands
- The Northeastern Plateau
The Deccan plateau
This is touched by the western ghats in the west, Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura. Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north. Western ghats are known as Nilgiri hills in Kamatnku and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills in Kerala. ‘Anaimudi’ (2,695 m), the highest peak of Peninsular plateau is located on the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghats followed by Dodabetta (2,637 m) on the Nilgiri hills. The Mahanadi. The Godavnri, The Krishna, The Kaveri, etc are the main river of this region. It is the largest plateau in India.
The Indian Desert
The name of India desert is 'Thar desert'. It is the Asia’s largest desert. This region receives low rainfall below 150mm per year. Hence it have low Vegetation. The area of thar desert is 3,20,000sq km.