Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gases, uranium and from electricity.
Conventional source of energy
Conventional source of energy are also known as the non-renewable source of energy.
- Coal: In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. India is highly dependent on coal. Lignite is low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. Neyvelj in Tamil Nadu is producer of lignite. Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal. major resources of it is Damodar valley( West Bengal-jharkhand), jharia, raniganj, bokaro. The godavari , Mahanadi, son and wardha valleys also contain coal deposits. Also found in meghalaya, Assam, arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
- Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy source in India after coal. About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam. Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in the state.
- Natural gases: Large reserves of natural gas are Krishna- Godavari basin, Mumbai high, gulf of cambay and Andaman and Nicobar etc. The 1700 km long Hazira-Bijaipur - Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien.
- Electricity: Electricity is generated mainly in two ways: by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity: and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power. India has a number of multi—purpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley corporation, the Kopili Hydel Project etc. producing hydroelectric power. Thermal electricity is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas. The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity. There are over 310 thermal power plants in India. Uranium and thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for generating atomic or nuclear power.
Conventional source of energy
Non Conventional source of energy are also known as the non-renewable source of energy. Solar energy, wind, tide ,biomass and energy from waste materials are non-conventional source of energy.
- Solar energy: Energy from sun is called solar energy. The largest solar plant of India is located in Madhapur near bhuj where solar energy is used to kill germs of milk can. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.
- Wind power: India now ranks as a “wind super power” in the world. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.
- Biogas: Shrubs, farm waste animals and humans waste are used to produce biogas for domestic use in rural areas.
- Tidal energy: Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity. Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high tide water flows into the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. After the tide falls outside the Hood gate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea via a pipe that carries it through a power—generating turbine. the Gulf of Kuchchh, provides ideal conditions for utilizing tidal energy.