Chapters

Tense

Tense shows the time when a work has been done. Their are three type of tense

  1. Past Tense
  2. Present Tense
  3. Future Tense

 

Further each type tense is divided into four parts: Simple, Continuous, Prefect and Prefect Continuous.

Simple Past Tense

The work which have done in past comes under Simple past tense. Rules to make simple past tense:

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + v2 + obj, eg: He spoke, She wrote, I smilled.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + did not + v1 + obj, eg: He did not speak, She did not wrote, I did not smilled.
  3. Question - Did + Sub + v1 + obj , eg: Did he speak, Did she wrote, Did I smilled.
  4. Question with Negative - Did + Sub + not + v1 + obj, eg: Did I not smile, Did He not speak etc.

 

Past Continuous Tense

The work which have started in past and is still going comes under the past continuous tense.

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + was/were + v1 + ing + obj, eg: He was writing, She was smilling, They were studying.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + was/were + not + v1 + ing + obj, eg: He was not writing, She was not smilling, They were not studying.
  3. Question - Was/were + Sub + v1 + ing + obj ?, eg: Was he writing, Was she smilling, Were they studying
  4. Question with Negative - Was/were + Sub + not + v1 + ing + obj, eg: Was he not writing, Were they not studying etc.

 

Past Perfect Tense

It is used to express an action which has occurred in past (usually, a long time ago) and action which has occurred in past before another action in past.

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + had + v3 + obj, eg: He had eaten, She had smilled, I had walked.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + had not + v3 + obj, eg: He had not eaten, She had not smilled, I had not walked.
  3. Question - Had + Sub + v3 + obj, eg: Had he eaten, Had she smilled, Had I walked.
  4. Question with Negative - Had + Sub + not + v3 + obj, eg: Had She not smiled, Had I not walked etc.

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

The past perfect Continuous tense indicates a continuous action which has started in past and that was completed at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the modal "HAD" plus "BEEN".

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + had + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time , eg: He had been walking for two hours, She had been playing since morning, I had been writing since evening.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + had + not + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time, eg: He had been not walking for two hours, She had not been playing since morning, I had not been writing since evening.
  3. Question - Had + Sub + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time ?, eg: Had he been writing for two hours, Had she been playing since morning, Had I not been writing since evening.
  4. Question with Negative - Had + Sub + not + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time, eg: Had he been not writing for two hours, Had she not been playing since morning etc.

 

 

Simple Present Tense

The simple present tense refers to an action or event that is ongoing or that take place regularly in present time: 

If subject is I, we, they, you or Plural:

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + v1 + obj, eg: They read, You dance, I walk.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + do not + v1 + obj, eg: They do not read, You do not dance, I do not walk.
  3. Question - Do + Sub + v1 + obj, eg: Do they read, Do they write, Do I walk.
  4. Question with Negative - Do + Sub + not + v1 + obj, eg: Do they not read, Do they not write etc.



If subject he, she, it, name or singular:

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + v1 + s/es + obj, eg: He read, She dance.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + does not + v1 + obj, eg: He does not read, She does not dance.
  3. Question - Does + Sub + v1 + obj, eg: Does he read, Does she dance.
  4. Question with Negative - Does + Sub + not + v1 + obj, eg: Does he not read, Does she not dance etc.

 

Present Continuous Tense

Such actions which takes place (happening) at present time of speaking are expressed by present continuous tense.

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + is/am/are + v1 + ing + obj, eg: She is eating, They are walking, I am playing.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + is/am/are + not + v1 + ing + obj, eg: She is not eating, They are not walking, I am not playing.
  3. Question - Is/am/are + Sub + v1 + ing + obj ?, eg: Is she eating, Are they walking, Am I playing.
  4. Question with Negative - is/am/are + Sub + not + v1 + ing + obj, eg: Is she not eating, Is they not walking, Am I not playing etc.

 

Present Perfect Tense

The work completed at the present time is expressed by Present Perfect Tense:

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + has/have + v3 + obj, eg: He has spoken, She has written, I have eaten.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + has/have + not + v3 + obj, eg: He has not spoken, She has not written, I have not eaten.
  3. Question - Has/have + Sub + v3 + obj, eg: Has he spoken, Has she written, Have I eaten.
  4. Question with Negative - has/have + Sub + not + v3 + obj, eg: Has he not spoken, Has she not written, Have I not eaten etc.

 

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

The work which started in past and continuing in present time comes under the present prefect continuous tense.

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + has/have + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time, eg: He has been walking for one hour, She has been reading newspaper since morning, I have waiting for two hours.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + has/have + not + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time, eg: He has not been walking for one hour, She has not been reading newspaper since morning, I have not been waiting for two hours.
  3. Question - Has/have + Sub + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time ?, eg: Has he been walking for one hour, Has she been reading newspaper since morning, Have I have been waiting for two hours.
  4. Question with Negative - Has/have + Sub + not + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/since + time, eg: Has be not been walking for one hour, Has she not been reading newspaper since morning, Have I have not been waiting for two hours etc.

 

 

Simple Future Tense

The work which will be done in future are expressed by simple future tense:

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + shall/will + v1 + obj , eg: He will read, She will walk, I will sing.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + shall/will + not + v1 + obj , eg: He will not read, She will not walk, I will not sing.
  3. Question - Shall/will + Sub + v1 + obj , eg: Will he read, Will she walk, Will I sing.
  4. Question with Negative - Shall/will + Sub + not + v1 + obj , eg: Will he not read, Will she not walk, Will I not sing etc.

 

Future Continuous Tense

The future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be in progress at a time later than now.

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + shall/will + be + v1 + obj , eg: He will be writing, She will be dancing, I will be running.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + shall/will + not + be + v1 + ing + obj , eg: He will be not writing, She will be not dancing, I will be not running.
  3. Question - Shall/will + Sub + be + v1 + ing + obj ?, eg: Will he be writing, Will he be dancing, Will he be running.
  4. Question with Negative - Shall/will + Sub + not + not + v1 + ing + obj , eg: Will he be not writing, Will he be not dancing, Will he be not running etc.

 

Future Perfect Tense

A tense expressing expected completion of a work at a point of time in the future is known as future perfect tense

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + will/shall + have + v3 + obj , eg: You will have started a job, I will have left for home by the time he gets up, She will have finished the work by Wednesday.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + will/shall + not + have + v3 + obj , eg: You will not have started a job, I will not have left for home by the time he gets up, She will not have finished the work by wednesday.
  3. Question - Will/shall + Sub + v3 + obj ?, eg: Will you have started a job, Will I have left for home by the time he gets up, Will I have not finished the work by wednesday.
  4. Question with Negative - Will/shall + Sub + not + have + v3 + obj , eg: Will you not have started a job, Will I have left for home by the time he gets up, Will I have not finished the work by wednesday.

 

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

This tense is used to talk about an action or actions that started in the past and continued until recently or that continue into the future:

  1. Affermative Sentence - Sub + will/shall + have + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/from + time , eg: They will have been talking for over an hour by the time.
  2. Negative Sentence - Sub + will/shall + not + have + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/from + time , eg: They will not have been talking for over an hour by the time.
  3. Question - Will/shall + Sub + have + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/from + time , eg: Will they have been talking for over an hour by the time.
  4. Question with Negative - Will/shall + Sub + not + have + been + v1 + ing + obj + for/from + time , eg: Will they not have been talking for over an hour by the time.

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