A word used in place of Noun to avoid the repetition of noun is know as Pronoun. Pronoun us used in place of noun, it is not used with noun. Types of Pronoun are:
- Personal Pronouns: Words which are used in place of noun and refer to a perticular person like: I, me, we, us, you, he, him, she, her, it, they, them.
- I got first position in class - Here 'I' refers to a perticular person in place of name(noun).
- She is a very beautifull girl - Here we used 'She' in place of name(noun) of a perticular person.
- He is my best friend - 'He' is used in place of name(noun) of a perticular person.
- Demonstrative Pronouns: These word are used in place of noun to point out an objects: This, that, these, those.
- This is my pen - Here the pronoun 'this' refers to a perticular object (Non Living thing).
- That is her bag - Here the speaker also refers to a perticular bag with the help of pronoun 'that'.
- Possessive Pronouns: This pronoun is used when we want to say that this perticular object belongs to some perticular person: Mine, ours, yours, his, hers, theirs.
- This dog is mine - Here we want to say that this dog belongs to me. I have the possession of that dog.
- This bag is yours - In this sentence you have the possission of that bags. This bag belongs to you.
- This ring is hers - Here a this rings belongs to a perticular girl. That girl have the possession of that ring
- Interrogative Pronouns: These words are used in place of noun to ask question: Who, whom , whose, which.
- Who took my pen? - Here the user asked the question with the help of pronoun 'Who'.
- Whose books are this? - Here the user asked the question with the help of pronoun 'Whose'.
- Reflexive Pronouns: Words used to emphasise(put pressure or highlight someone in a sentance): Myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, herself, itseld, themselves, oneself etc.
- I can do my work myself - Here we have focus on 'myself', the speaker want to emphasize that he can do his work.
- God help those who help themeselves - Here the speaker focused on 'themselves' and want to say that god only help to those persons who try to do their work themselves.
- Reciprocal Pronouns: These words used to point out mutual relationship: Each other, one another
- Both the sisters love each other - Here the pronoun 'each other' shows the mutual relationshhip between the two sisters that they love each other
- We should not figth with one another - The word 'One another' show the the mutual relation ship
- Distributive Pronouns: Used when we have to refer one object or person at a time: Each, either, neither, every, none etc.
- Either of two pen is not working - Here we are refering to only one pen out of two pens, which is not working.
- Neither of phone is black - Here we are refering to the phone seprately, that they are not black.
- Indefinite Pronouns: These words used before noun and refers to general meaning: Everybody, somebody, nobody, everybody, someone, no one, anyone, everything, something, nothing, all, some, any, both, another, nuch, few, little.
- Relative Pronouns: Relative pronouns can be used to join two sentences. A relative pronoun is one which is used to refer to nouns mentioned previously, whether they are people, places, things, animals, or ideas: Who, Whom, whose, which,that etc.
- The book, when it was finally returned, was torn and stained.
- This is the place where we met.
Case of Personal Pronouns
|Case of Personal Pronoun||Subject||Object||Possessive Adjectives||Possessive Pronouns|
|First Person (Singular)||I||me||my||mine|
|First Person (Plural)||We||us||our||ours|
|Second Person (Singular/Plural)||You||you||your||yours|
|Third Person (Singular)||She, He, It||her, him, it||her, his, its||hers, his|
|Third Person (Plural)||They||them||their||theirs|
Use of Personal Pronouns
Those Pronouns which are used in First Person, Second Person and Third Person are known as Personal Pronouns.
|Nominative Case||Objective Case|
If we uses a pronoun before verb then it is called as Nominative Case and if we use it after verb then it will be known as Objective Case eg:
- She enjoys English lessons (Nominative Case) - Here the pronoun 'She' used before the verb enjoy, so it is a Nominative case.
- English lessions are enjoyed by her (Objective Case) - Here the pronoun 'her' is used after the verb enjoyed, so it s an Objective case.
Rule of Using Personal Pronouns
Below we will discuss some rules of using Personal Pronouns
If we use more than one pronoun in a sentence and the sentence is not negative, means sentence is not about anything happening wrong, and the pronouns are in singular form then the pronouns were used in 231 order. 2 for 2nd person, 3 for 3rd person and 1 for 1st person eg:
- You, he and I shall go for a picnic (231) - Here 'You' (2nd person), 'He' (3rd person) used before the 'I' (1st person).
- He and I have completed our study (31) - Here 'He' (3rd person) came before 'I' (1st person).
- You and he have toped the class (23) - Here 'You' (2rd person) came before 'He' (2nd person).
If we use more than one pronoun in a sentence and the sentence is negative, means sentence is about something happening wrong or some unpleasent act, then the pronouns were used in 123 order. 1 for 1st person, 2 for 2nd person and 3 for 3rd person eg:
- I, you and he will be punished (123) - Here 'I' (1st person) will come before the 'You' (2nd person) and at last 'He' (3rd person) will be used because the sentence shows some unpleasent act.
- You and he have made a blunder (23) - Here 'You' (2nd person) came before 'He' (3rd person) because the sentence shows some unpleasent act.
If Pronouns are in Plural form then we uses the 123 order, some of the examples are given below:
- We, You and they start learning english immidately (123).
- We, you and they are leaving for Delhi tommarrow (123).
We always use Objective Case after Let, like, between, but, except and prepositions for eg:
- Let me do this - The Objective case of preposition is used after Let
- Everyone attended the class except him - The Objective case of preposition is used after Let
- She Looked at me.
- There is no problem between her and me.
If we compare two nominative then we use a Nominative Case Pronoun after AS/than eg:
- He is as fast as I - Here we uses 'I' after as, if we write he is as fast as 'me', then it will be wrong.
- I type faster than he - Here we uses 'he' after than, if we write I type faster than 'him', then it will be wrong.