Chapters

Narration

Under the narration we studies the Direct and Indirect Speech.

  1. Direct Speech: A kind of speech reported directly from the speaker in exact words spoken by the speaker and is placed in inverted commas. e.g: Ritu says, "I work hard".

  2. Indirect Speech: a kind of speech which is reported by some other person by using certain conjunction in place of commas and making necessary changes in the verbs and pronoun of the speech e.g: Ritu says that she works hard.

 

Types of Sentences in Narration

For the purpose changing narration, sentences are divided as follows:-

  1. Assertive sentence: Sentence denoting statements in affirmative(positive) and negative, eg - You are playing(affermative), She was not sleeping(negative) etc.

  2. Interrogative sentence: Sentences begning with auxilary verbs(is, am, are, was, were) or where, why, who, which, what etc, eg -Are you playing, What are you doing etc.

  3. Imperative sentence: Sentence denoting command, request & advice, eg - Solders turn to the left (command), Please give me your pen (request), Do not waste your time (Advice).

  4. Exclamatory sentence: Sentences which express joy, sorrow, wonder, eg - What a preety girl she is! (Wonder), Hurray! we won the match (Joy), Oh! she missed first position by two marks(Sorrow)

  5. Optative sentence: Sentences which express wish, prayer, eg - May god bless you, May you live long.

 

Changing Direct to Indirect speach

While changing from Direct to Indirect Speech we have to take care of three things:

  1. Change in Tense
  2. Change in Modals
  3. Change in Narration

 

Change in Tense

 

  1. Present tense changes into past tense:
    Present Indefinite Past Indefinite
    Present Continuous Past Continuous
    Present Perfect Past Perfect
    Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
  2. Past tense changes as follows:
    Past Indefinite Past perfect
    Past Continuous Past perfect continuous
    Past Perfect No change
    Past Perfect Continuous No change
  3. Future Tense - In future tense will/shall changes into would/should.

 

Note :- If the reporting verb is in the present or future tense or reported speech is a universal truth, the tense of reported speech doesn't change.eg

  1. She says, “I shall go to Delhi”. - She says that she will go to Delhi.
  2. Teacher said to the students, “the sun rises in the east”. - Teacher told the students that the sun rises in the east.

 

Change in Modals

Change in modals will take place as follows

May Might
Can Could
Shall/Will Should/Would
Have to Had to
Should No change
Must No change

Changing Assertive Sentences

While changing assertive sentences from Direct to Indirect speech, if the Verb is with an object then change into 'tell' or 'told' otherwise don't change 'say' and 'said'. Replace the inverted commas with that.

  1. She says to me, "I am a lawyer" (Direct) - She tells me that she is a doctor (Indirect), Here the verb says have an object me, so it will be changed to 'she tells me'
  2. She said, "I am a lawyer" (Direct) - She said that she is a doctor (Indirect), Here the verb said do not have an object, so it will be changed to 'said that'.

 

Changing Interrogative Sentences

If a question is asked and the answer can be given in only 'Yes' or 'No' then we use if or whether. If question is asked using 'wh' family then we donot use anything. Change the said to asked.

  1. He said to me, "Do you know me" (Direct) - He asked him if I knew him (Indirect), Here 'said to' is changed to 'asked' and 'do' is changed to 'whether' because we can answer this question in yes/no.
  2. He said to me, "What are you doing" (Direct) - He asked me what I was doing (Indirect), Here 'said to' is changed to 'asked' and their is no change in 'What' because the question asked using 'wh' family remains as it is.

 

Changing Imperative Sentences

Change 'Said to' according to sentence like - ordered, requested, suggested, forbade, reminded, warned, agreed, refused, promised etc.

  1. The judge said,"Call the witness" (Direct) - The judge ordered to call the witness (Indirect).
  2. Mother said to me, "Take the umbrella" (Direct) - Mother advised me to take the umbrella with me (Indirect)
  3. Mother said to me, "Take the umbrella" (Direct) - Mother advised me to take the umbrella with me (Indirect)
  4. Veenita said , "Congratulation brother you came first" (Direct) - Veenita congratulated her brother telling him that he came first (Indirect)

 

Changing Exclamatory Sentences

Change 'said and exclamationary word' according to sentence like - exclaimed with sorrow, exclaimed with joy, exclaimed with surprise

  1. She said, "Hurray! we have won this match" (Direct) - She exclaimed with joy that they had won that match (Indirect)
  2. Sarita said, "Alas! I am ruined" (Direct) - Sarita exclaimed with sorrow that she was ruined (Indirect)

 

Changing Optative Sentences

Change 'Said' to 'wished' or 'prayed'.

  1. They said, "long live the king" (Direct) - They prayed that the king might live long (Indirect)
  2. They said, "May god save our country" (Direct) - They prayed that god might save their country (Indirect)

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