Chapters

Processing System

Anything which is input into a computer system is processed by our computer before giving the output. All the thinking by the computer is done in the processing system. All the thinking in the computer is done by manipulating the digital digits (Zero and One).

Central Processing System

The CPU is known as the brain of computer. In CPU executes all of the instructions from the software. Parts of CPU are:

  1. Control Unit (CU)
  2. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Control Unit

This part of the computer controls the machine cycle. It takes a number of cycles to do simple addition of two numbers. The Control Unit performs:

  1. Fetch: It is a process to get instruction from the main memory.
  2. Decode: It translates instructions into computer understandable language
  3. Execute: In this part an arithmetical operation or logical comparisons are performed.
  4. Store: Here the final result received after execution is stored in the memory.

Memory Addresses

It is a number that is assigned to each byte of computer memory, which is used by the CPU to track where data and instructions are stored in RAM. Each byte of memory is assigned a memory address.

Processor Speed

Processor speed is measured by the clock rate of a system. It is measured in megahertz (MHz) where:

          1 MHz = 1 million cycles per second

          1GHz = 1 billion cycles per second.

Physical Components

There are several Physical Components of a computer which are directly involved in the processing. They are:

  1. Microprocessor
  2. Memory Device

Microprocessor

This is a single silicon chip containing CPU, ALU and some memory. The microprocessor chip is located on a large circuit board called the main board or motherboard. A computer chip is very small in size.

Memory Devices                                                     

Memory is used to store data which is needed for processing. Earlier Vacuum Tubes are used as memory devices, but they can store very low amount of data and produce a lot of heat. Nowadays Semi-Conductor memory are used which are very fast and very small in size.


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