Chapters

Carbon

All living things in the world are made up of carbon and its compounds.

Hydrocarbon

The carbon compound having hydrogen with it are called hydrocarbon. There are two types of hydrocarbons.

  1. Saturated
  2. Unsaturated

Saturated hydrocarbon

These hydrocarbons contain single bond between two carbon atoms i.e. these contain alkane group. General formula of single bonded hydrocarbon is C n H 2n+2 where n =1,2,3,4…..so on.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons

These hydrocarbons contain double and triple bond between two carbon atom. i.e. it contains alkene and alkyne. General formula of double bonded hydrocarbon is C n H 2n  where n =1,2,3,4…..so on . General formula of triple bonded hydrocarbon is C n H 2n-2 where n =1,2,3,4…..so on.

Functional groups

Functional groups are those groups which made a carbon compound reactive and decides its properties. Some functional groups are discussed below

1. Alcoholic group (-OH) : It is made up of one Atom of oxygen and one of hydrogen joined together. General formula is R-OH. Eg. Methaol, ethanol etc.

Suffix used for it in IUPAC name is ol

Prefix used for it in IUPAC name is hydroxy.

2. Aldehyde group (-CHO) : It is made up of on carbon, one hydrogen and one oxygen Atom joined together. General formula is R-CHO. Eg. HCHO, ethanal etc.

Suffix used for it in IUPAC name is al

Prefix used for it in IUPAC name is oxo

3. Ketonic group (C=O): it consist of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. Carbon atom joined with oxygen Atom with double bond. Eg. Propanone, butanone etc.

Suffix used for it in IUPAC name is one

Prefix used for it in IUPAC name is oxo

4. Halogen: The compounds have a Halogen atom with carbonate Atom are called Halogen functional groups. Eg. Chloroethane etc

5.Carboxylic acid (- COOH):

Suffix used for it in IUPAC name is oic acid

Prefix used for it in IUPAC name is carboxyl

6. Ethers group (-O-): it consist of an oxygen Atom between two attached carbon chains

7. Esters (-COOR-): suffix for it is oate.  Ester group is present in methyl acetate.

8. Amino group (-NH 2-): They are made up of one nitrogen and two hydrogen atoms joined together. A carbon compound containing amino group is called amine . eg. Methanamine

Suffix used for it in IUPAC name is amide

Prefix used for it in IUPAC name is carbamoyl

9. Nitro group (NO 2): it is made up of one nitrogen and two Oxygen atoms eg. Nitromethane

Natural rubber

 It is one of the most important natural polymers. It is linear polymer of an unsaturated hydrocarbons called isoprene (2- methyl butadiene). There are may be 11000 to 20000 isoprene units in a polymer chain of natural rubber.

Soap

Soap is sodium salt of long chain of fatty acid which has cleaning property with water. Soap is made by heating of animal fat or vegetable oil with concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. The fat reacts with sodium hydroxide to form soap and glycerol. Ionic group of soap is -COO Na +

Detergents

It is the sodium salt of a long chain benzene symphonic acid which has cleaning properties with water. Ionic group of detergent is -SO 4- Na+


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