Chapters

Plant

Plant are living organisms of the kind exemplified by trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, climbers etc, typically growing in a permanent place, absorbing water from earth and inorganic substance through its roots and synthesizing in its leaves by photosynthesis.

Types of Plants

Generally plants are divided in five types:

  1. Herbs: They are small plants with soft and smooth stems having height of less than 2m. eg: wheat, spinach, mint etc.
  2. Shurbs: Plants of medium height with woody stem, many stem branches of equal height may arise near the base, e.g: Aloe Vera, Calluna, Rose etc.
  3. Trees: Plants which are of great heights with thick woody stem(Known as trunk). Eg: Neem, Banyan etc.
  4. Creepers: Grass like plants are called creepers. Eg: Cucumber, pumpkin, melon etc.
  5. Climbers: They rise up their supports by means of clinging and coiling structures. Eg: Money plant, Grape, Beans etc.

Parts of Flowering Plant

Generally a flowering plant has six parts

  1. Root
  2. Stem
  3. Leaves
  4. Flower
  5. Fruits
  6. Seed

Root

Roots are the organ of the plant which lies below the surface of soil. The first root that comes from plant is called radicle.

Functions of roots

  1. Absorption of water.
  2. Absorption of inorganic nutrients.
  3. Holding the plant body to the ground.
  4. Storage of food and nutrients.
  5. Vegetative reproduction

Parts of roots

  1. Tap root: The primary thick and main root are called tap roots.
  2. Rootlets: The finer roots branches are called rootlets. The tips of rootlets are covered by root caps.
  3. Root Hairs: The number of fine outgrowths behind tip is called root hairs.

Stem

A stem connects the roots to lives, store food, providing support, hold leaves, flower and buds of a plant. The stem of a plant is one of two structural part of vascular plant (another one is root). The stem is the part lies above ground which provides support for leaves and buds.

The stem is normally divided into:

  1. Nodes: The nodes hold one or more leaves as well as buds which lately grow into branches.
  2. Internodes: The area between nodes is internode.

Shoot: These are fresh plants grows out of the ground. These includes both stems and leaves.

Parts of stem

  1. Epidermis.
  2. Phloem.
  3. Cambium.
  4. Xylem.
  5. Pith.

Leaves

They are green dissimilar lateral outgrowth which develops on stem or its branch in the region of nodes. Leaves are known as food factory of plant because they produce food for the plant by process of photosynthesis. They also help in respiration as well as in transpiration.

An Important of leaves is the presence of stomata. Each stoma consist tiny pores surrounded by two epidermal cells called guard cells. These tiny pores open and close to regulate the passes of gases and water to and from leaves they may be present on stems flowers and fruits.

Function of leaves

  1. Photosynthesis.
  2. Transpiration.
  3. Respiration.
  4. Food Storage.

Flowers

Flower has a broad surface called thalamus or torous. Flowers are the plants reproductive structures. A flowering plant is known as angiosperms. Flowers are both male and female. They are brightly coloured to attract insects to help them carry pollon used for sexual reproduction while some uses the wind for the pollination (the process to transfer polens to the stigma).

Parts of flowers

  1. Sepal: They are leaf like structure that surrounded and protects flower before it blooms. They are generally green in colour.
  2. Petals: These are colourful part of flowers that attracts insects or birds. Some flowering plants are not brightly coloured because petals are absent or reduced in those flowers.
  3. Stamens: The male reproductive structures of a flower are stamen. Each stamen are consist of Anther which produce pollens, and the filament which support the other. Pollen produced by the anther is carried by insects or animals to the pistil of another flower where it may fertilize the egg.
  4. Carpels: These are female reproductive part of flower. In most flowers the carpels are fused together to form a pistil.

Parts of Carpels:

  1. Stigma: The part of plant that recives pollen is called Stima. Stigma is sticky to keep the pollon in the place while it germinates. After germination the sperm moves from the stigma down to the style of the pistal to the ovary to fertilize the eggs after the fruit grows.
  2. Style: It is a long pipe like structure that connects stigma and ovary. It used to move sperm from stigma to ovary.
  3. Ovary: The Basel swollen part is known as ovary. Its functions are to produce eggs, to produce polar Nuclei, to produce seeds and to produce fruits.
  4. Ovules: It contains egg if the ovule is fertilized an embryo develops eventually growing into a seed. N ovary contains one or more ovules.

 

Fruits

Fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. A fruit may contain one or more seeds.

Seed

A seed is a fertilized ovule containing the plant embryo. Given the appropriate growth conditions, it will become the new plant. A seed contains a good reserve and protective covering called as seed coat


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