Chapters

Brain

Our Brain is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses. The Brain is protected inside the brain box named as cranium. It is covered by three membranes called Meninges filled with fluid called Cerebrospinal fluid which protects the brain from shocks.  Brain is divided into three major parts:

  1. Forebrain
  2. Midbrain
  3. Hindbrain

Forebrain

It is the anterior part of the brain. It consists of Cerebrum and olfactory lobes, including the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus. It is the thinking part of the brain and controls voluntary actions (Voluntary or conscious actions are the ones which we perform as per our wish. Eg: Riding a bicycle, dancing, and eating an apple). It controls touch, smell, hearing, sight, mental activities like thinking, learning, memory, emotions etc.

Midbrain

Midbrain, also called mesencephalon, region of the developing vertebrate brain that is composed of the tectum and tegmentum. It controls involuntary actions (Involuntary or reflex actions are very sudden actions initiated by some stimulus such as pain, pressure, heat, cold, light or touch. e.g. withdrawing your hand on getting pricked, shivering, and the dilation of the pupil.). The midbrain serves important functions in motor movement, particularly movements of the eye, and in auditory and visual processing. It is located within the brainstem and between the two other developmental regions of the brain, the forebrain and the hindbrain compared with those regions, the midbrain is relatively small.

Hindbrain

Hindbrain, also called rhombencephalon. It consists of Cerebellum, Pons and Medulla. The hindbrain coordinates functions that are fundamental to survival, including respiratory rhythm, motor activity, sleep, and wakefulness.

  1. Cerebellum: It controls body movements, balance and posture.
  2. Pons: It controls Respiration.
  3. Medulla: It controls Heart beats, blood pressure, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting etc.

Spinal Cord

It starts from brain and extends through the vertebral column. It has 31 pairs of the spinal nerves. It carries messages to and from the brain to and from the other parts of body. Ait controls Reflex actions.

Reflex Actions

Reflex actions are very sudden actions initiated by some stimulus such as pain, pressure, heat, cold, light or touch. E.g. Withdrawing your hand on getting pricked, shivering, and the dilation of the pupil.


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